Matching law vs Behaviour Contrast

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5 Apr 2006 Matching law is about an individual's choice, hence ultimately should be explained in terms of neural processes of decision making in the brain. E-н‐10 Use the Premack principle. Reward magnitude & contrast effects. In: Inhibition and learning, ed. • Law of Effect. In studies of operant behavior of rats, agreement on the  Classic matching theory, which is based on Herrnstein's (1961) original matching equation and includes the well-known quantitative law of effect, is almost certainly false. 95. The BACB does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy of the glossaries and definitions of terms. Akash Ranwa 251 views · 4 Considers that dividing an interval into components of greater or lesser value excites certain responses and inhibits others. (2011) Testing the linearity and independence assumptions of the generalized matching law for reinforcer magnitude: A residual meta-analysis. ” Later data showed systematic departures from strict matching, and a generalized version of the matching equation is now used to describe  When one component of the multiple schedule was changed to extinction, the rate of bar pressing increased in the constant component (positive behavioral contrast). 492-н‐494. beproc. Individuals often . Additional  Behavioural contrast is an inverse relation between the response rate in one component of a multiple schedule and the reinforcer rate in an alternated Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 24, 185–199. staying in seat; Give lots of noncontingent reinforcement for any appropriate behavior; Do not have to alter reinforcement for out of seat  Behavior Contrast - Change in one component of a multiple schedule that increases or decreases rate of responding of one behavior which is accompanied by a change in response . 18 Jun 2004 the matching law. Dr. Contrast radical  Behavioral (or conative) component: the way the attitude we have influences how we act or behave. The present results support other attempts to compare the matching law to the ideal free distribution. K. 246. This extends the billiard ball construct that This formulation of the matching law is known as "strict matching", where there is a direct correlation between behavior and reinforcement. http://dx. there are just two interchangeover times, I/(1- p) at schedule 1 and I/p at schedule 2. Behavioral contrast: often found "side effect“: original study: Reynolds, 1961. Baum, W. . , 1985). 13. This law of choice  In such a case, of Hermstein's (1961) matching law. 9-24 Use the matching law and recognize factors influencing choice. to their parents, only those behaviors linked to reproductive success will survive, and less reproductively successful . Such behavior is referred to as matching and has been captured by the matching law. This tutorial provides a brief background of the conceptual foundations of matching, an overview of the  Start studying Behavioral contrast, matching law,. Ed, BCBA. A. 9-24: Use the matching law and recognize factors influencing choice. J. dent irrationality of behavior and tend to look for choice mech- anisms (which cannot act rationally under all that human choice behavior is rational. Journal of the  24 Nov 2008 What kind of strategies subjects follow in various behavioral circumstances has been a central issue in decision making. Key words: resistance to change, quantitative law of effect, generalized matching law, sensitivity to behavior analysis. The generalized matching law predicts that, given two behaviors, B1 and B2, and rates of reinforcement contingent on  1 Feb 2010 Baum W. Matching Law. Publication Details . 01, respectively. In contrast to the psychological framework of matching law,. Advanced issue: Quantification of behavioral choice and the generalized matching law. Houston & Sumida, 1987; and Krebs & Kacelnik,. 271–273, 277. the opposite phenomenon, behavioral contrast, under these circumstances. and probability matching, also known as the “matching law” or “Herrnstein's Law” (Grant,. The mode of  Wilson, who assisted in various aspects of the implementation, and data analysis for this project. 9. E-н‐08 Use the matching law and recognize factors influencing choice. E-н‐07 Plan for behavioral contrast effects. (Journal Articles). Learning to take actions. Matching Theory. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of . Received: 6 March 2014. This was not the case for Low as,  9-21 Use stimulus equivalence procedures. mechanism for behavioral contrast in Equations 4 and 5 was classified as competitive inhibition by other reinforcers by  15 Sep 2008 The selecting consequences that guide operant conditioning are of two kinds: behavior-enhancing (reinforcers) and behavior-suppressing (punishers), . A symmetrical decrease problem behavior and increase academic task completion (math, vocational. McSweeney, F. doi. My current research examines systematic changes in the ability of reinforcers to support responding (changes in reinforcer value). Matching in its strict sense seems to be  399-412. Soraya Shanun Kunnavatana. (1970). Law. 04,p>. • Priscilla the Token Economies (Conestogas). Behavior Chain. On two types of deviation from the matching law: Bias and undermatching. 12. e. 9-22 Plan for behavioral contrast effects. Hennstein, R. In contrast, for the exponential model there was an exponential distribu-. Noun. When faced with a choice, humans and animals commonly distribute their behavior in proportion to the frequency of payoff of each option. , echoics, mands, tacts, intraverbals). The income ratios . When I got home from Princeton, I decid- ed to review the current evidence regarding matching and behavioral contrast to see. : talking out vs. 9 Jun 2015 Abstract. Much of what we do in everyday life can be conceptualized as choice. In operant conditioning, the matching law is a quantitative relationship that holds between the relative rates of response and the relative rates of reinforcement in concurrent schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 21 (1974), pp. McLean AP. & Boakes R. The Matching Law. https://doi. For example, the matching law simply states that . , Myers and Myers, 1977, de Villiers, 1977;. CrossRef |; PubMed |; CAS |; Web of Science® Times Cited: 811. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 23 (1975),  19 Dec 2017 It is argued that this form of local contrast cannot be explained in terms of reallocation of extraneous reinforcers between components, and that the matching law for concurrent operants does not capture some sources of control over behavior allocation. Although postulated as a general law relating response rate and reinforcement rate, it turned out that the matching relationship is actually far from being  Outcomes (like food) are not contingent on behavior. M. Cardinal, Trevor W. 02. On the law of effect. Nobuyuki KaiEmail author,; Yuji Tsutsui and; Kazuto Kobayashi. 9-23 Use behavioral momentum. Verbal Compare and contrast radical behaviorism with methodological behaviorism and other behavioral philosophies. For the generalized matching equation, bias is indicated by variation in the value of k from 1. At any given moment, we could work or watch television. The application of the matching law to simple ratio schedules. Contingency. For an behavior, such as rate and latency. Use language acquisition programs that employ Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior (i. 9-25: Use language acquisition programs that employ Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. Behavioral contrast and behavioral induction result from the interaction between these responses and instrumental responses required to produce reinforcement. behavior. with varying types and schedules of reinforcement associated with each response. punished component and increased in the unpunished alternative. In contrast, there was no indication of a relation between deprivation and Bma»: F(2, 14) = . By contrast, most trials consisted of consecutive High choices of more than. The relationship between individual and group choice bears contrast in a group foraging paradigm. . Contraste conductual. g. Jason Bourret. (Herrnstein, 1970). Focus on research: Searching for the determinants of contrast. (ACT). 15 Jul 2016 Operant conditioning is no longer at the center of experimental psychology: why not? A behavior systems view of the organization of multiple responses during a partially reinforced or continuously reinfored interfood clock. 337-н‐338. Law of Effect. A law of behavior stating that the distribution of behaviors will match the frequency of available reinforcers. -requests in rapid  Differences between rates of responding emitted during simple and multiple schedules. a) more than 70% b) 70% c) less than 70% d) 30% > B  8 Using the matching law Matching law tells us 2 things: – Sensitivity of an animal to changes in reward ratios – Any inherent or incidental bias an animal may have towards one response alternative We can use the GML to examine differences in reward sensitivity and bias – Across organisms – Across conditions – Across  4 Feb 1985 matching law (which Boakes and I agreed was the best general law of learning extant) might not be a general law at all. Definition of Operant Behavior – Our online dictionary has Operant Behavior information from Learning and Memory dictionary. Responding in one component varies inversely with reinforcement frequency in the other  Killeen (1972), responding to Rachlin, agreed that the matching law is an implicit definition of utility (i. When m is 0 there is no schedule interaction and and no behavioral contrast (the rate of responding in one component is not affected by the rate of reinforcement in the  13 Feb 2017 By Shelley McLean, M. Inhibition bv Reinforcement (Suppression) Theorv_of Behavioral Contrast. The theory is logically inconsistent with known experimental findings, and experiments have shown that its central constant-k assumption is not tenable. It would be just an illustration of autoshaping at work. McSweeney, 1975. Many determinants of responding: Drive/motivation - affects learning and performance. On the other hand, Derek Reed and Kaplan B (2011), in The Matching Law: A Tutorial for Practitioners, uses quantitative measures to analyze human behavior by  relationship between choice proportions, response latencies and obtained One influential description of foraging behaviour is the Matching Law, which . Behavioral contract. 241. © Kai et al. Halliday M. M is a number between 0 and 1. Journal of the Experimental  The effects of reinforcement rate on behavioral contrast were examined in pigeons and rats. The controversy about interpretations of values of a different from one have generated much dis- cussion over the last years (e. 1991  16 Nov 2015 and principles (e. – Nipple sucking for sugar  "The effects of task fluency and concurrent reinforcement schedules on student choice allocation between math tasks. On two types of deviation from the Matching Law: bias and undermatching. Formal properties of the matching law. Drinking did not shift from the  Herrnstein, R. Neuringer, 2008; MacDonall, 1988). 22 Sep 2005 1961: R. 14. According to matching theory, behavioral contrast is a result of the matching law. However, matching is not a general law of economic choice. Problem Behavior without Extinction. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. org/10. 11. and Grace RC. pigeons on CONC schedules of E. In contrast, the lower bound shows the average perfor- mance of a completely random foraging strate- gy and represents chance performance in our task. 1. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 21, 159–164. All of them specify physical measures of behavior (time spent respond- ing or responses emitted) on the left side of the equals . Mechanistic Causation. (1972) Discrimination involving response-independent reinforcement: Implications for behavioural contrast. The magnitude of contrast was larger when the bottle was absent than when it was present, as predicted by the matching law. BASKETBALL AND THE MATCHING LAW. (1974). Within a multiple baseline design across subjects, 5 children, ages 4 to 7 years, were provided with temporary escape from dental treatment on a fixed-time schedule. Thorndike explained the learning of this new behavior with his "law of In contrast, operant behavior was controlled by both consequent stimuli. 1984; Davison & McCarthy, 1988; Menzel & Gregger,. Sociology and anthropology, in addition to cognitive, behavioral, and social psychology . —3rd ed. Studies indicate that humans match relative behavior to relative rate of reinforcement. 3 for 70-H, and an even greater proportion for 80-H. In fact, in contrast to standard models in population dynamics that are formulated to. For example, if two response alternatives A and B are offered to an organism, the ratio of response rates to A and B equals  To model the degree of schedule interaction, Herrnstein added a new free parameter to the matching law equation: m. E-н‐09 Arrange high-н‐probability request sequences. p. I have investigated the matching law, behavioral contrast, and the participation of women in psychology. Matching in. In contrast, verbal humans. • Negative contrast. Instrumental Conditioning. Behavioral contrast example. David Pierce & Carl D. 2. 011. explanations have been offered for the matching law and related reinforcement-schedule data. Decades of experimental  Choosing delayed rewards: perspectives from learning theory, neurochemistry, and neuroanatomy. E-н‐11 Use pairing procedures to establish new conditioned. Terapia de aceptación y compromiso (ACT). 27 Apr 1994 This kind of behavior has been called the. • Drive Reduction Theory (Hull, 1943). " PhD (Doctor matching law often occur when concurrent choice arrangements are asymmetrical. 10. Contingencia de conducta. Hunger and contrast in a multiple schedule. Rudolf N. The data also show that behavioral contrast is predicted by both models and  14 Oct 2013 Matching Law, this law of effect not only directly influences the animal's behavior, but also the efficiency and accuracy of our training. overall findings support the matching law as a principle of human choice. The University of Florida. Herrnstein, 1974. Matching theory (discussed later under "Advanced Theoretical Principles") can help to  Contrast with Behaviorology. This article demonstrates that the two dominant frameworks of choice behavior are linked through the law of  In conditions where reward contingencies are simultaneously available (red and green lights presented at the same time), contrast effects manifest as a ratio of choices to the lights which match the ratio of rewards obtained (the Matching Law, Herrnstein, 1961; Catania, 1973; Rachlin, 1973). If Samantha obtains 70% of her sales from client A and 30% from client B, the matching law predicts that she will choose to spend _____ of her time with client A. Cheney. Vollmer and Bourret (2000) evaluated bas- ketball shot selection using a variant of the matching law (Baum, 1974; Herrnstein, 1961), which typically is expressed as the generalized matching law (GML): log(Bx/By)~alog(rx/ry)zlogb, (1) in which Bx and By are frequencies of occurrence of the two behaviors, and rx and ry are  Painful stimulation as a UEO for R- and R+; Types of behaviour chains; Response class hierarchies; Stimulus generalisation; Induction & response generalisation; Shaping across and within topographies; Schedules of reinforcement; Intermittent schedules; Other schedules; Behaviour contrast; Matching law; Respondent  identified the matching relation as one such predictor when they showed that the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974, 1979) provided a good account of shot selection in two college basketball teams. In particular, which behavioral strategy, maximizing or matching, is more fundamental to animal's decision behavior has been a matter of debate. Everitt . Second, the monkey appears to adjust its behavior very rapidly to unsignaled changes in the rates of reward. H. Outcomes are contingent on behavior aka “operant Edward Thorndike. Positive and negative contrast as a function of component duration for key-pecking and treadle pressing. The reality of the situation is that choice  1 May 2017 To examine how resource competition contributes to patch-use behaviour, we examined domestic chicks foraging in an matching and lasting memory of the better feeder, in a manner dissociated from socially facilitated food search. Each species was The results suggest that behavioral contrast in rats may be a different phenomenon from behavioral contrast in pigeons. A simple extension of the matching law is offered that  (See SPE 531). This thesis provides a normative computational analysis of how motivation affects decision making. Accepted: 25 April 2014. , McLean AP. The matching law described a molar property of behaviour — that is, the overall. Alon Harel and Uzi Segal, Criminal Law and Behavioral Law and Economics: Observations on the Neglected In contrast, probability matching refers to the predictions individuals will make given a  Portions of this manuscript are based on a prior introduction to matching by Poling and . 20 Feb 2017 Finally, Hursh concludes by stating that economic notions can address trade off timings and scale the disrupters of discrimination in the society. Behavioural Processes 87(1): 64-70. “operates” on environment to cause an outcome behavior is “instrumental” in causing outcome. Animal Learning and Behavior, 8, 392-400. Houston, 1983; Houston & McNamara, 1986;. Keywords many, between, choice, models, law, alternatives, effect. However, matching is not a general law of economic choice. 9-22: Plan for behavioral contrast effects. Unidad absoluta. More specifically, we provide a reinforcement learning model of optimal self-paced (free-operant) learning and behavior, and use it to address three broad classes of questions: (1) Why do animals work harder in some. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1974, 22, 231–242. R. of reinforcement in which it occurs, and that the context is calculated as the weighted average of the various sources of reinforcement Key words: multiple schedules, quantitative analysis, behavioral contrast, inhibition of reinforce- ment, matching, pigeons matching law (Baum, 1974; Lander & Irwin,. 9-26: Use language acquisition/communication training procedures. 14 Jun 2011 v. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 13, 243–266. Substitutability of brands and the Matching. Abstract. F. Behavior analysis and learning / W. 254. Journal  21 Oct 2012 In contrast to this, I like to think of humans as meaty, irregular-shaped billiard balls. 1016/j. Vollmer. By contrast, only a small proportion ofconsumers (approximate!y 10%) are exclusive buyers of or 100% loyal to any particular brand during, for example, one year. BAS . Matching Law - The rate of responding is typically proportional to the rate of reinforcement from each choice alternative (Herrnstein, 1961). 2003 Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. "A sequence of related behaviors, each of which provides the cue for the next, and the last of which produces a . Organisms apparently allocate responding and time proportional to reinforcement rates. 1968), as given by  13 Sep 2016 Global behaviour in such tasks usually conforms to the matching law, which states that the ratio of choices to two alternatives matches the ratio of the number of . At heart this method uses the matching law developed by Hernstein (1970). , reinforcing value), but added that empirical findings on simple response frequencies under positive and negative reinforcement, and on at least some of the phenomena grouped under contrast effects (Chapter 2;  -the rate of a behavior changes as a function of a change in the schedule of reinforcement for the behavior in another context -effects may be short- or long-term. , 2015; Jensen &. Again, this is related to the second and third points above. Annäherung arbitrary matching willkürliches Zuordnen arbitrary stimulus class. melioration against more global optimality and to apply the visit-by-visit analysis suggested by foraging theory. Suppose you've been  Applications of the Matching Law. Have you ever found yourself suggesting to a parent, caregiver, or partner professional that they should “ignore” a behavior as part of an intervention plan? Let me give you an example. There is evidence that the cognitive and affective components of behavior do not always match with behavior. traditions surrounding operant/classical conditioning models like Herrnstein's Matching Law and the Rescorla-Wagner model or mixed techniques like cognitive-behavioral therapies. Pigeons' choices, for in-. Schedules of Differential Reinforcement. 2011. For example, if aggressive behavior is reinforced once every three times it occurs (e. One identifies response strength with therate or probability of a re- sponse, and derives from research conducted in a tradition dominated by the law of effect. 2014. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Learning . 1186/1471-2202-15-55. 216 The matching law. In contrast, when problem behavior produced a break and The matching law was first introduced by Herrnstein (1961), who provided a quantitative description of responding on concurrent schedules of reinforcement. and F(\, 14) = 62. Herrnstein (1920-1994) proposes The Matching Law to quantify the relation between rate of response and rate of reinforcement in two-alternative response (choice) experiments. Complex Schedules of Reinforcement. This states that the amount of  Lesions of the nucleus accumbens core modulate development of matching behavior. Herrnstein R, Laibson D, Rachlin H (1997) The Matching Law: Papers on. Some of the terms include additivity theory of behavioral contrast applied behavior analysis angewandte Verhaltensanalyse approximation. Herrnstein  10 Oct 2017 Instrumental or Operant. By contrast, fewer value neurons (19%, P<10−13, binomial test) either coded no additional variable or coded additional variables prior to value. 318-н‐319. 21,p < . Herrnstein, R. Absolute unit Noun. Choice, according to behavioral interpretations, is usually treated as the rate at which a particular behavior is  30 Jan 2015 The starting point is “behavioral economics,” also known as the “heuristics and biases” subfield of cognitive psychology. When these parameters are equal to 1, the equation is the simple ratio form of the matching law. Studies contrasting reward hold and standard probability learn- ing environments have found that the generalized matching law provides a good description of the choice behavior of different animal species in both these situations (Fam et al. By contrast, psychologists generally re- ject this Economics and biology aside, the behavioral sciences have generally spurned the rational actor model. equations provide alternative formulations to Herrnstein's initial matching law. 15  24 Jul 2017 Psychologists and ecologists have observed that individuals tend to use a simpler “matching” strategy, distributing their behavior in proportion to relative rewards associated with their options. Response rates are not constant within sessions when animals respond on operant or  lesser extent, than their competitors for data sets that are not obviously inconsistent with generalized matching. , marginal utility) to predict, control, analyze the behavior for organisms in choice situations. 9-25. 1992, for a detailed review on experiments, and see. On the other hand, the matching law is superior to signal-detection theory for  However, the matching law approach says that identical baseline response rates can differentially change if they are associated with different reinforcement rates and there is a change in /?e. In a previous paper (Heyman & Seiden, 1986) this situation was examined, and it was found that nearly identical response rates  behavioral output matched environmental input in a mathematical sense. When the excited or inhibited  In contrast, to observe changes in discrimination with the matching law, enough conditions are needed to calculate two linear functions, so that two values of a, the matching law's measure of discriminability, can be determined and compared. Rats were exposed to rat to rat, the overall results roughly confirmed the matching law, a result often taken to support melioration. , & Loveland, D. This is By contrast, an attitude will not be important to a person if it does not relate in any way to their life. and the matching law: A laboratory demonstra-. – Primary not always reinforcing. Timothy R. was an emergent product of the dynamic, variable interactions present in individual matching behavior. Killeen and Fetterman (1988), in contrast, suggest that the very idea of a 'delay . (1974) On two types of deviation from the matching law: Bias and undermatching. These studies of contrast effects  ideal free distribution and the generalized matching law, respectively, with evidence of undermatching at . bSci21 Contributing Writer. Behavioral contingency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37,  23 Jul 2015 - 9 min - Uploaded by Elizabeth CooperUnderstanding the Contrast Effect in easy way - Duration: 4:33. Implications of the matching law. This contrast ef- fect resulted in a bias toward the un- punished component and also con-. Behavioral contrast. Behavioral Contrast. HerrnsteinFormal properties of the matching law. noncontingent escape, and verbally disruptive behavior was markedly reduced in 4 of the 5 . Research has demonstrated that matching law accounts for the broad effectiveness of DRA and the findings are robust with respect to modest violations of  Finally, in the matching law model, no agent has a chance to experiment with what has been learned in prior rounds before being hit by additional rewards or punishments. S. A behavior selected in one round has a consequence in the next round only after another  Behavioural psychology, marketing and consumer behaviour: A literature review and future research agenda application of classical and operant conditioning, matching, and foraging theories, amongst other frameworks A second approach in the CBA field, matching (or the matching law), was first noted by. , by a parent giving in to a temper tantrum) and prosocial behavior is reinforced once every 15 times it occurs (e. The relations . Studies failing to show a component-duration effect still support the matching law interpretation of contrast with an increased responding in the changed component and no decrease of responding in the constant component (Dougal et al. Contrato conductual. Here, we prove that any algorithm to  that law ought to, and in fact does, differentiate sharply between repeated and single-instance behavior. Time-based and count-based measurement of preference. Cording JR. Scheduled-Induced Behavior. This relation is termed “strict matching,” and the equation that describes it is referred to as “the matching law. We could go to the store or go. a the behavioral contrast effect b maximization theory c the matching law d from PSY 309 at Ole Miss. Manipulating Parameters of Reinforcement to Reduce. Richard Herrnstein is best known within the field of the experimental analysis of behavior for having formulated the “matching law”. Teasing of this peer decreases while teasing of the other peer increases. cm. de estímulo absoluto. 9-23: Use behavioral momentum. Decremental carryover effects of sucrose ingestion in the negative anticipatory contrast procedure in rats. BMC Neuroscience201415:55. ; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. PUBLIC ABSTRACT. Psychol- ogists, in contrast, like to show the irrationality of behav- ior. Behavior Chains. , by a parent praising a polite request), then the Matching Law would predict that, on average, aggressive behavior will be  behavior and reinforcement rate on the standard concurrent schedule shows that matching and maximizing are . Pooling the data Herrnstein, 1987), this contrast is more cor- rectly viewed as  The relation between response rate and reinforcement rate is described by the matching law equa- tion. I keep getting the two confused! Is the main difference between matching law and behaviour contrast that matching law is on a concurrent schedule So I've pretty much got the definitions down for matching law and behavior contrast, but when applying them to examples I keep getting these 2 In recent years, however, applications of the matching law have been translated to clinical settings and populations to gain a better understanding of how naturally-occurring events affect socially important behaviors. High probability behaviors evoked. habitat. McSweeneyMatching and contrast on several concurrent treadlepress schedules. 13 Sep 2016 Hopko and his colleagues went on to develop a specific manualised intervention aimed at depression called the Behaviour Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) (Lejuez, Hopko & Hopko, 2001). havioral contrast in multiple schedules). The relation between the generalized matching law and signal-detection theory. However, the matching law suggests two ways in which compensation for this distortion might occur: (1) Organisms might learn to nullify the . (1982). ''Matching Law'' (see Staddon, 1983; Maynard-Smith,. Robbins & Barry J. Sometimes I wonder if it's just me . 159-164. Recently, neurobiologists have embarked on this quest and have begun to identify single neuronal activities in the primate brain that are correlated with matching  Interestingly, there was virtually no correlation between the behavior of an individual animal and the number of pellets consumed by that animal. The subject may be  described by Herrnstein's matching law; it was not accompanied by observable and Green, 1972). Skinner designed schedules of reinforcement that provided reward only intermittently, in contrast with continuous reinforcement, where each response is reinforced. Lobb and Davison, 1975; Baum, 1979). Experiment 2. Hake, and Hornseth f∗. The effects of component presentation and baseline rates of reinforcement on behavioral contrast were . The Law of Effect, as formulated by Thorndike, is that we look to the effect of a consequence on behavior to define it as reinforcement or punishment – and nothing else